in The end it went quite quickly. Just 72 hours cooling off and negotiation period of the French Marshal and allied commander in chief Ferdinand Foch, the German Delegation had stood, as at 8. November 1918 in his Salon car with the serial number 2419 D in the forest of Compiègne, of him the conditions for a cease-fire demanded. On the list of harsh demands of the Germans were in negotiations with subordinate officers anyway to change hardly anything. Foch himself struck with a brusque absence.
On 11. November, brought together the delegations shortly after 2 o’clock in the Morning. At 5.12 PM, the signing ceremony began. Eight minutes later, she was finished. Around 11 o’clock, the arms should come to a standstill. The First world war after four years, three months and eleven days, came to an end.
Not only Secretary of state Matthias Erzberger head of the German armistice Commission was appalled by the claims – immediate withdrawal, the occupation of the Rhineland, the delivery of heavy weapons, ships, means of transport, while maintaining the British Blockade and your presentation. But that was only the political side. On the other thought he was his son, he had lost in the war. So he was truly not alone.
judging by the Figures, had been the First world war, the bloodiest conflict that humanity had fought. In the thirty years ‘ war, the relationship between the Survivors and the dead was much greater. But the losses of the modern machine war had reached a Dimension that raised the question of why mankind was getting into ever again on such a Venture.
But it’s not supposed to go in the Following, but the balance of suffering. Statisticians have pressed in cold Numbers. Then 9.442.000 soldiers between 1914 and 1918, on the fields of battle, in the leg, in the hospital, in the home on both sides of your life. This is a signal that mathematical precision is lost, however, in the powder steam of reality. How safe is it to Pay in the Balkans, in the vast Expanses of Russia or in the garnet-contaminated sludge in Flanders?
most of the victims were attributable to the German Reich (two million), Russia (1.8 million), refers to the structure of the war. He favored the defenders. Since the Germans in 1914, and in 1918, sought to force large-scale offensive several of the armies of the decision, were your losses accordingly. In August 1914, they accounted for 12.4, in September to 16.8 percent. In the same orders of magnitude the Numbers were in the spring of 1918 and the withdrawal of the same year to fight, so in the movement. The Russian losses were probably higher, but saved by the breaking out of the war, in 1917, the country is a further bloodletting. The then went to the detriment of the civil war.
Throughout the year, gears of war had extinguished. Almost half of all the Fallen on the German and the British side was 19 to 24 years old. While the soldiers were over the age of 35 years, slightly more than 30 percent of the teams, but only one-tenth of the dead. You seem to have been used less in the front lines. In the second half of the War, especially newly recruited military were required to be exposed to the risk of a fatal wound, writes the historian Benjamin Ziemann in the relevant contribution of the “soldiers” of the “encyclopedia of the First world war”.
the breakdown of the weapons, which were responsible for the deaths, says a lot about the character of the war. By the end of 1914 to 1917 artillery shells for 76 percent of the French wounded to be responsible. The German Figures were of a similar magnitude. Infantry ammunition followed with 16 percent, hand-grenades, with one to two, and poison gas, with 1.7 and edged weapons, with 0.1 percent. With dashing Hooray-attacks of the war Machines had nothing in common.
but also the mentality of the soldiers changed. Anyone who has had to endure in the trenches, understood primarily as victims, while the crews of the guns, which were in 50-metre intervals behind the Front, the infernal violence that emanated from them, especially as technical power saw. “The intensity of the technically enhanced killing actions of the gunners exceeded his moral perception, by Far,” writes Ziemann.
After all, the technical progress had brought the soldiers an advantage. The death rates in the hospitals, in the Wars of the 19th century. Century, exceeding the battle fields slightly, fell significantly. Improved medical care meant that only a tenth of the German losses due to diseases in the French army, it was a fifth.
mental wounds occurred on a large scale. The live in shelters, under a drum-fire, the vegetation in boggy ditches between the rats and the dead, the raids permanent fear of Artillery, snipers and shock troops led to war neuroses, “shell shock” or “war trembling”. Today we would call posttraumatic stress disorder. Alone in the German army of almost 600,000 cases were diagnosed.
Add to that the confrontation with the Suffering of many comrades who remained alive, but due to horrific wounds were distorted came. As the German Delegation began in June of 1919, signed the peace Treaty of Versailles, they had to pass through a group of severely injured French veterans, whose faces were destroyed. To be reminded hundreds of thousands of verses so honored in all of the countries that had participated in the war, its horrific violence. In Germany alone, there were 2.7 million physically and mentally disabled in the war.
But the war had not decimated the armies. Companies had led him, so also was in the home died. On the side of the Central powers Germany, 700.000, Austria-Hungary 400.000, Bulgaria 300.000 had to mourn the dead civilians. The approximately two million deaths in the Ottoman Empire, a reference to a further aspect of the war, the genocide of the Armenians.
the victims of The German home front can be explained with the British Blockade and the consequent starvation winter of 1916/17. However, in a similar order of magnitude was also died in France (to 600,000), the UK (over 600,000), Russia (one Million) and Italy (700.000).
No difference between soldiers and civilians eventually made beginning in 1918, the pandemic of the Spanish flu. Recent studies from around the world, nearly 50 million dead. Alone, 17 million are not to be on the Indian subcontinent and in the disintegrating Russian Empire, where the disease appeared, however, alone as a death bringer.
Because the Die on the fields of battle continued unabated. In Russia, the civil war raged, as well as in Ireland, the Baltic States or in Romania, which was also the Hungarian Soviet Republic in the past. Until 1921, the Polish took the Soviet Union until 1923 the Greek-Turkish war. And the establishment of numerous authoritarian regimes and dictatorships in the South, East, and Central and Eastern Europe was rarely without brutal internal purges.
the First world war continued its bloody trail, and prepared to resist it all and Experience a new war the way it should be much direr.
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